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Polyfunctionality is the phenomenon that one affix is used with a number of different meanings or grammatical functions.


In Dutch, the suffix -er is used to form

  1. deverbal agent nouns (werker 'worker),
  2. deverbal instrument nouns (wekker 'alarm clock'),
  3. geographical personal nouns (Amsterdammer 'person living in Amsterdam'),
  4. denominal personal nouns (rechter 'judge'), and (e) deadjectival personal nouns (ouder 'parent').


Utrecht Lexicon of Linguistics


  • Moortgat, M. & H. van der Hulst 1984. Geïnterpreteerde morfologie, Glot 4, 179-214, .