Copy raising

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In syntax, copy raising is a kind of raising construction in which the raised element leaves a coreferential "copy" pronoun in the subordinate clause. Alternatively, the "copy" may appear in the matrix clause (as evidenced by verb agreement, for example) with the "copied" nominal remaining in the complement; see Blackfoot example.


  • English Richard seems as if he won. (Compare with ordinary raising: Richard seems to have won.)
  • Modern Greek I kopéles fén-onde na févgh-un. [the girls seem-3PL that leave-3PL] 'The girls seem to be leaving.'
  • Blackfoot
 "Nitsíksstatawa kááhkanistahsi nohkówa." 
 [1-want-3s 2-might-tell-3s 1-son-3s] 
 "I want you to tell my son." 

Compare without the raising:

 "Nitsíksstaa kááhkanistahsi nohkówa."  
 [1-want  2-might-tell-3s 1-son-3s])


  • Frantz, Donald G. 1978. Copying from complements in Blackfoot. Cook and Kaye (eds), Linguistic Studies of Native Canada, 89-110. UBC Press.
  • Frantz, Donald G. 1979 Multiple dependency in Blackfoot. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society, 77-80.
  • Frantz, Donald G. 1980 Ascensions to subject in Blackfoot. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 293-299.

Other languages

German Kopieranhebung