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The term kāraka was used by Panini for semantic roles. It is not really used as a technical term in modern linguistics, but many works refer to Panini's kāraka concept as an early precursor of modern semantic roles.



Coined by Panini (cf. Singh 1974, Rauh 1988:139-150).


  • Rauh, Gisa. 1988. Tiefenkasus, thematische Relationen und Thetarollen. (TBL, 309.) Tübingen: Narr.
  • Singh, J.D. 1974. Panini's theory of kārakas. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics 3:287-320.